3Os ecosystem framework

In Layer 3, the main focus is instead value creation and capture in relation to focal firms defining the evolution of the domain and the relations. Companies within the same open business ecosystem (BE) are often interdependent, and their relationships are characterised by complementarity, modularity, and co-opetition.

Specifically, companies aim to complement each other’s offerings to provide holistic solutions to customers. For example, an operating system provider and software application developer in the same ecosystem create value together. Moreover, these ecosystems are often structured in modules. This feature allows companies to specialise in specific components or services, increasing efficiency.  Lastly, companies in the same business ecosystem interact under the principle of co-opetition. In each of these specific domains, collaboration can lead to mutual benefits, and companies might cooperate on standards or infrastructure while competing for market share. At this level an important player is the focal firm. This player is the one adapting the set of relations to deliver the value proposition efficiently and effectively at the core of the BE.